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Shen Professional 3.1.epub 'LINK'


Although the ASB writes, amends, and interprets USPAP, the Board does not enforce USPAP. Through FIRREA, the federal government has mandated that the states enforce real property appraiser compliance with USPAP. Professional appraisal associations also have the legal authority to enforce USPAP compliance by their members. In addition, many users of appraisal services (such as lenders, mortgage companies, etc.) have adopted USPAP and require employee or contract appraiser compliance to USPAP. Complaints regarding real property appraisers should be directed to the state(s) in which they are licensed or certified. For more information about filing a complaint against a real property appraiser, please visit our Enforcement and Complaints webpage. Complaints about an appraiser of any other discipline, such as personal property or business valuation, should be forwarded to the professional organization to which the appraiser belongs (when applicable).




Shen Professional 3.1.epub


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The rejuvenation of a nation depends upon education and the development of education depends upon teachers. Thus, quality teachers are the spine for representing overall teaching levels. This is more in science education, the training of these teachers to the standards is a great need. This article discusses a proportional look into the pre service science teacher preparation in Sri Lanka and China with comparison to the National Science Standards in U.S.A. The reforms, pre service science teacher training and science teacher professional education systems contribute to producing competent science teachers to the education system in both the countries at different levels. However, it cannot meet the standards for remarkable increasing requirements of highly qualified science teachers in the context of new science education reform. More effective measures should be taken to improve pre-service science teacher education and it must also be altered, which is not easy. In this paper an attempt is made to bridge the gap between the previous reports findings, highlights problems associated with the planning and organization of in-service training and proffered recommendations towards improving classroom instruction and organization of in-service training for prospective science teachers teachers.


The National Colleges of Education were established in 1985 for the training of pre-service teachers recruited from among Advanced Level graduates within the age range of 18-22 years, on the merits of a comprehensive interview, in some cases on the results of both a test and an interview. In colleges of education the teacher trainees are expected to achieve an understanding of the physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of the learner, the structure of the national system of education from historical and comparative perspectives, and the fundamentals of their religion and their cultural heritage, a thorough comprehension of current theories of learning and their implications for teaching, the goals of a national system of education and the specific objectives of the discipline in which they are specializing and acquiring a knowledge of the subject matter that they are expected to teach in the classroom (Asian Sri Lankan Teacher Education 89 Development Bank, 1989). There are different colleges of education established for different specialized subject areas such as, primary education, math-Science education, English education, religious education, home economics education and Physical education. All the colleges of education provide a residential teacher education course for the first two years of their training within the colleges. All expenditure on board, lodging and tuition is met by the central government. In the third year, when they follow the internship period in deferent schools they are given a stipend by the government. While in the colleges of education the trainees follow four broad areas of teacher education curriculum: Foundation/professional education, general education, area of specialization and unscheduled activities. Under the professional area they study psychological foundations of education, philosophical and social foundations of education, educational evaluation and measurement, educational guidance, trends in education, school and community, and educational practice. In general education they study mother tongue, English, religion and culture, hygiene and Physical education, and aesthetic education (art, dancing and music). As the area of specialization they are expected to select one of the following: Mother tongue, math, science, primary education, home economics, English, Physical education and religion.At the end of three years a diploma in teaching certificate is awarded on the merits of the grading on the continuous Sri Lankan Teacher Education assessment scheme and grading on the internship performance, results of part 1 examination and part 2 final examinations [7]. The internship grading are awarded on the consideration of four components: (a) assessment of the principal where the trainee is posted to, on a five point scale, on general and routine behavior of the trainee within and outside the classroom and trainee's personality characteristics, (b) assessment of the senior teacher and the college of education professor under whose supervision the trainee works in the school, (c) assessment of the board consisting of principal, senior teacher and another teacher in the school on a five point scale on trainees interaction with others in the school, trainee's professional attitudes, community focused attitudes, and trainees overall performance as a teacher in the school, and (d) grading awarded by the college of education supervisor to the three projects and the essay that the trainee is expected to complete within the internship period (Colleges of Education, 1987) [8].


The training programmes were compared of the two countries. Tingjie YU (2013) interviewed many principals in Chinese secondary schools and asked them to give some suggestions to current teacher education. According to him teacher education is a typical professional education which is quite different from other higher education. They emphasized that teacher education should care more about the needs of current school teaching [17].


The focus on professional development to assure that the beginning science educator helps to professionalize science teacher education. Professional development remains a necessary prerequisite in both the countries Sri Lanka and China. The pre-service science teacher training programmes should be designed, in relation with the school curriculum goals refereeing to the National Science Standers of pre service teacher training programmes[28]. It was evident from the analyses of documents in Sri Lanka the NCOEs were fashioned and molded with a vision to achieve certain objectives. Therefore an attempt was made to examine whether these objectives are been achieved and whether the power structure has been sensibly constructed. It was felt that the objective of forming a developed professional is not yet been fully achieved due to lack of technology, lack of proper professional development programmes and mainly due to lack of sufficient finance to implement such programmes are major problems.


Table S1. Estimated energy requirements and deficit of competitors with and without the addition of PAL (BMR x 1.7). p value, difference in means between PRO and AMA. Data analysed using an Independent T-Test. Statistical significance assumed where p


All participants provided written informed consent for aggregate, de-identified study results to be published in peer-reviewed journals and to be presented at conferences or other professional forums.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.


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